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Map of Peru

flag of Peru.

Republic of Peru

Machu Picchu, Peru.
Machu Picchu, Peru. [1]

Key facts


Official Name República de Perú
Land Area 1,285,216 sq km
Population 29.46 million (2010 estimate, Peruvian National Institute of Statistics)
Capital City Lima
Religion Catholic (81.33%) (2007 census)
Official Language Spanish
Currency Nuevos Soles (PEN)
Exchange Rate 1 NZD = 2.34 PEN (6 November 2013)


Political system

Presidential Democracy

National government

Mr Ollanta Humala Tasso

National legislature

Congress consists of a 120-member single chamber, which can be dissolved once during a presidential term

Last election

April 2011

Next election due

April 2016

Head of State

Mr Ollanta Humala Tasso

Head of Government

Mr Ollanta Humala Tasso

First Vice President

Mrs Marisol Espinoza


Ministers as of March 2014

President of the Council of Ministers René Helbert Cornejo Díaz
Agriculture Juan Manuel Benites Ramos
Culture Diana Álvarez-Calderón Gallo
Defence Pedro Cateriano Bellido
Development and Social inclusion Paola Bustamante Suárez
Economy and Finance Miguel Castilla
Education Jaime Saavedra Chanduvi
Energy and Mining Eleodoro Mayorga Alba
Environment Manuel Pulgar Vidal
Foreign Affairs Eda Rivas Franchini
Health Midori Musme de Habich
Housing, Construction and Sanitation Milton Martín Von Hesse La Serna
Interior Walter Albán Peralta
International Trade and Toursim Blanca Magali Silva Velarde-Álvarez
Justice and Human Rights Daniel Augusto Figallo Rivadeneyra
Labour and Employment Promotion Ana Ethel del Rosario Jara Velásquez
Production Piero Eduardo Ghezzi Solís
Transport and Communications Carlos Paredes Rodríguez
Women and Vulnerable Population María del Carmen Omonte Durand

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2009 2010 2011
Nominal GDP (US$ bn) 125.5 133.8 176.7
Nominal GDP (Ns bn) 391 419 487
Real GDP growth (%) 1.3 2.5 6.9
Expenditure on GDP (% real change)
Private consumption 1.8 2.2 6.4
Government consumption 9.4 7.2 4.8
Gross fixed investment -4.1 1.2 5.1
Exports of goods & services -6.9 1.3 8.8
Imports of goods & services -7.7 1.2 9.8
Origin of GDP (% real change)
Agriculture 2.1 3.5 3.8
Industry -2.5 3.2 4.2
Services 2.8 2.1 11.8
Population and income
Population (m) 29.4 29.8 30.4
GDP per head (US$ at PPP) 8,517 8,644 9.946
Recorded unemployment (av; %) 9 8.7 7.9
Fiscal indicators (% of GDP)
Public-sector balance -1.6 -0.5 1.9
Public-sector debt interest payments 1.4 1.3 1.0
Net public debt 25 23.9 19.9
Prices and financial indicators
Exchange rate Ns:US$ (end-period) 3.12 3.16 2.70
Exchange rate ¥:Ns (end-period) 30.73 29.77 29.05
Consumer prices (av; % change) 4.1 3.1 3.4
Producer prices (av; % change) 1 2.5 6.3
Stock of money M1 (% change) 4.8 7.3 12.6
Stock of money M2 (% change) 9.9 5.9 9.8
Lending interest rate (av; %) 20 21.5 18.7
Current account (US$ m)
Trade balance 5,951 6,750 9,302
Goods: exports fob 26,962 35,565 46,268
Goods: imports fob -21,011 -28,815 -36,967
Services balance -1,144 -2,345 -2,132
Income balance -7,484 -10,055 -12,636
Current transfers balance 2,887 3,026 3,200
Current-account balance 211 -2,625 -2,267
External debt (US$ m)
Debt stock 36,393 36,271 37,393 (c)
Debt service paid 4,361 6,785 5,411 (c)
Principal repayments 2,220 4,059 4,691 (c)
International reserves (US$ m)
Total international reserves 33,230 44,213 48,929

Source: IMF, International Financial Statistics.

(c) Economist Intelligence Unit 2009

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Trade with New Zealand

NZ Exports (FOB) NZ$ 80 million (for year ended December 2011)
Main Exports Milk and cream NZ$36.940 million
Malt extracts NZ$9.531 million
Butter and other fats, oils derived from milk NZ$18.941 million
Fish; frozen (excluding fish fillets and other fish meal) NZ$4.658 million
NZ Imports (CIF) NZ$ 12.309 million (for year ended December 2011)
Main Imports Natural calcium phosphates; natural aluminium calcium phosphotes and phosphatic chalk NZ$12.309
Articles of apparel, clothing accessories and other articicles of furskin NZ$7.032
Railway or tramway sleepers (cross-ties) of wood NZ$1.746 million
Coffee, whether or not roasted or decaffeinated; husks and skins; coffee substitutes containing coffee in any proportion NZ$1.455 million
Dates, figs, pinapples, avocados, guavas, mangoes and mangosteens, fresh or dried NZ$1.379 million

Source: Statistics New Zealand.

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Relationship with New Zealand

Peru is a focus country under the Government’s Latin America Strategy. New Zealand and Peru work together in APEC and Peru is participating in negotiations for an expanded Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement (TPP - better known as ‘P4’).

The two countries signed a memorandum of understanding establishing formal foreign policy talks in May 1998. The first two rounds of talks took place in Lima in June 2002 and July 2004, with further rounds in Wellington in November 2005 and in Lima in October 2006.

Trade and economic links


Trade has traditionally been a key element in the Peru-New Zealand relationship, particularly in dairy. Peru is participating in negotiations for an expanded Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement (TPP - better known as ‘P4’).

Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement

The Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement (TPP - better known as ‘P4’) between Brunei Darussalam, Chile, New Zealand and Singapore was signed in 2005. Negotiations for an expanded agreement including the United States, Australia, Peru and Viet Nam began in March 2010. Malaysia joined the negotiations during the third round in Brunei in October 2010. Canada and Mexico joined the negotiations in June 2012.

Read more on the TransPac page of this website.


An agreement on cooperation in agricultural health matters between the Peruvian agricultural agency, SENASA, and the New Zealand Ministry of Agriculture was signed in June 2002 during the visit by the Secretary of Foreign Affairs and Trade to Peru.

Air services

Peru was a signatory to the Multilateral Agreement on the Liberalisation of International Air Transport, which entered into force in 2002, along with. However, Peru announced in 2004 its decision to withdraw from the agreement. New Zealand has since sought to re-activate an "open skies" air services agreement that was negotiated with Peru in 1999, but never signed.

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People to people links

Cultural links

In October 2004 New Zealand soprano Dame Malvina Major gave a concert in Lima. In July 2006, Chief Executive of New Zealand’s national museum, TePapaTongarewa, Dr Seddon Bennington, visited Peru’s foremost museums to discuss potential cultural cooperation.

Education and exchange programmes

New Zealand tertiary training institute Unitec signed a statement of agreement with the Peruvian University of Applied Sciences in 2004.

AucklandUniversity (The APEC Studies Centre) has links with the Universidad del Pacífico, which also hosts an APEC Study Centre.

Victoria University of Wellington ran a pilot English language training programme on behalf of New Zealand’s Agency for International Development for 30 Peruvian government officials in 2006-07. There were 37 fee-paying Peruvians studying in New Zealand in 2007.

New Zealand contributed to a joint presentation with Peru at the January 2008 APEC preparatory symposium in China on the theme 'Education to Achieve 21st Century Competencies and Skills for All'.


New Zealand and Peru signed a Working Holiday Agreement during the APEC leaders’ meeting in Peru in November 2008. The scheme came into effect from 1 August 2009 and enables 100 young Peruvians and New Zealanders to travel to the other country each year to travel, study (one or more courses of up to 3 months’ duration) and work to finance their travel (for up to 3 months with the same employer).

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Political links

Multilateral links

New Zealand and Peru are both members of APEC and the Cairns Group and cooperate where there are shared interests in the World Trade Organisation and United Nations.

In 1989 Peru acquired the status of Antarctic Treaty Consultative Party with support.

An agreement for technical cooperation on fisheries between Peru’s Maritime Institute (IMARPE) and the Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (IGNS) was signed in May 1998.

In 2005 IMARPE signed a cooperation agreement with New Zealand NGO Southern Seabirds Solutions to mitigate by-catch of seabirds in fishing practice.

Peru recently participated in the negotiations to establish a South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organisation.

Peru and New Zealand are cooperating to address greenhouse gas emissions in the agricultural sector through the Livestock Emissions and Abatement Research Network (LEARN) and as members of the Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases.

Development assistance

Peru is a priority country for development assistance under New Zealand's Latin America and Caribbean Development Programme. Current development assistance includes post-graduate scholarships for Peruvian students to study in New Zealand, short term training awards, and a head of mission fund for small-scale, community- projects.

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Recent visits by high level New Zealanders to Peru

Several New Zealand ministers and senior officials have visited Peru during its hosting of APEC in 2008. Prime Minister John Key attended the APEC Leaders Summit meeting in Lima in November 2008, together the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Hon Murray McCully and Minister of Trade, Hon Tim Groser, who also attended the APEC Annual Ministers Meetings held immediately prior to the Leaders’ Summit. Hon Chris Carter, Minister of Education attended the APEC Education Ministers in Lima in June. Hon Phil Goff, Minister of Trade, visited Arequipa in May 2008 to attend the APEC Ministers Responsible for Trade Meeting. Mr Ray Salter, CEO of the Ministry of Tourism, attended the APEC Tourism Ministers’ meeting also in Lima in April 2008.

Hon Jim Sutton, Roving Ambassador for Trade, visited Lima in October 2006 to encourage Peru to consider accession to the Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement (P4).

Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade Hon Phil Goff visited Peru in January 2002. Minister Goff made a joint declaration on bilateral cooperation with his Peruvian counterpart, Diego Garcia-Sayan, and signed an agreement on Antarctic cooperation with Peru.

Hon. Jim Sutton, Minister of Agriculture and Minister for Trade Negotiations attended the Presidential Inauguration of Alejandro Toledo in July 2001.

Prime Minister Shipley visited Peru in May 1999 as part of an APEC focused visit to Chile, Peru and Mexico. Minister for International Trade, Dr. Lockwood Smith, visited Peru in July 1999, and Minister of Agriculture John Luxton visited in August 1999.

Foreign Minister Rt Hon Don McKinnon’s visit to Peru in May 1998 was the first ever visit there by a New Zealand Foreign Minister.

Recent visits by high level Peruvians to New Zealand

Vice Minister of Trade, Eduardo Ferreyros, visited New Zealand as the Prime Minister Fellow from Peru in June 2009. Minister Ferreyros has since been appointed Minister of Trade.

The National Director of SENASA visited New Zealand in April 2006 to hold talks with Biosecurity New Zealand and the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry.

Foreign Minister de Trazegnies met with New Zealand Foreign Minister McKinnon in Wellington in January 1999 after attending a Ministerial-on-Ice in Antarctica, and both President Fujimori and de Trazegnies returned to in September 1999 for the APEC meetings in Auckland.

President Fujimori made the first State visit by a Peruvian President to in June 1998.

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The New Zealand Embassy in Chile is also responsible for Peru [external link].

The Peruvian Embassy in Australia is responsible for New Zealand [external link].

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Travel advice

The New Zealand government's Safe Travel website has comprehensive travel information including advice on the safety and security of travel to Peru [external link].

Further enquiries may be directed to:

Consular Division
Tel: +64 4 439 8000
Fax: +64 4 439 8532

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[1] Machu Picchu (Quechua: Machu Pikchu) "Old Mountain" is a pre-Columbian Inca site located 2,430 metres (7,970 ft) above sea level in the Southern Peru.

Photo courtesy of outdoorbound.com

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Page last updated: Thursday, 01 May 2014 15:05 NZST